Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Moral Education and Emotional Lying Essay -- Philosophy Papers

Moral Education and Emotional Lying There is a long tradition, fathered by Aristotle and recurring like some recessive gene in recent virtue theorists, that holds that the emotions, like acts, must be 'trained'. Consider the following: [In Beckett's portrayal,] "Emotions are not feelings that well up in some natural and untutored way from our natural selves, that they are, in fact, not personal or natural at all, that they are, instead, contrivances, social constructs. We learn how to feel, and we learn our emotional repertoire. We learn emotions in the same way that we learn our beliefs — from our society." (Nussbaum 1990, p287) "Emotions, in Aristotle's view, are not always correct, any more than beliefs or actions are always correct. They need to be educated and brought into harmony with a correct view of the good human life ... with regard to both passions and actions". (Nussbaum 1994, p96) "Developing moral character ... requires training and developing passions and patterns of desire, choice, and emotion." (Stocker, 1980) According to Stuart Hampshire's 'second theory' in Two Theories of Morality (Oxford, 1977), Aristotle's proponent asserts that "one's childhood morality needs civilizing adjustment". (quoted by Stevens, p.6) "If [moral] education does not revolve around issues such as what to fear, what to be angry about, ... I do not know what it is. ... As Aristotle perceived, we are concerned with ... the education of the emotions." (Williams 1973, p225) Rorty (1980b), following Aristotle, also holds that emotions are learned. Now, it is clear that people can be trained to exhibit 'appropriate' emotions at the 'appropriate' time and to the 'appropriate' degree, or they learn to do so in... ...d. Explaining Emotions. Berkeley, 1980. (Rorty 1980b) Rorty, Amà ©lie Oksenberg. "Introduction". Pages 1-7 in Rorty (1980a). (Stevens 1981) Stevens, Rex P. Kant on Moral Practice. Mercer University Press, Macon, Ga., 1981. (Stocker 1980) Stocker, Michael. "Intellectual Desire, Emotion, and Action". Pages 323-338 in Rorty (1980a). (Williams 1973) Williams, Bernard. "Morality and the Emotions". Pages 207-229 in Problems of the Self (Cambridge, 1973). (Williams 1981) Williams, Bernard. "Moral Luck", pages 20-39 in Moral Luck. Cambridge University Press, 1981. (Williams 1993) Williams, Bernard. "Moral Luck: A Postscript", in Statman, Daniel, ed. Moral Luck. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993; reprinted in Williams (1995), pages 241-247. (Williams 1995) Williams, Bernard. Making Sense of Humanity. Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Rain Man the Movie

Rain Man is a movie directed by Berry Levinson. The movie won best picture in 1988. This movie is about a man Charlie Babbitt, played by Tom Cruise. In the beginning of the movie Charlie suddenly learns of his estranged and wealthy father’s death. After the funeral, Charlie is read his father’s last will and testament. He then finds out that he is not to be included in the estates finances. This news is somewhat disturbing to Charlie. He questions the lawyer to find out who the money has been left too. Charlie finds out that the three million dollars had been left to an un-named trustee.Charlie is determined to find out who this unnamed trustee is, and why his father would leave so much money to him. Through some digging Charlie finds that the trustee is a man that lives at a mental institution. Charlie goes there to check out the institution and ask questions. At the institution Charlie runs into his long lost autistic and institutionalized brother. It takes him awhile to put the pieces of the puzzle together because Charlie was never told that he had a brother. Charlie is still angry about not inheriting his father’s money, and is very confused about the news of having an autistic brother.Charlie decides to take his brother away from the institution, and back with him to Los Angeles. The news of having a brother is a big shock to Charlie, the fact that his brother has autism is very difficult for Charlie to deal with. Charlie’s brothers name is Raymond Babbitt he is played by Dustin Hoffman. Raymond is not allowed to leave the institution for longer than two hours, so it takes some manipulation on Charlie’s part to finally convince Ray to go with him to Los Angeles on this lengthy cross country road trip. Charlie had to promise Ray that he would take him to a major league baseball game.During the excursion Charlie slowly learns more about Raymond’s condition. It’s very challenging for both of them along the way . Charlie slowly learns how to adjust to all of Raymond’s autistic ways. Ray always likes to eat at the same time every day and gets very upset and nervous if anything is altered from his normal routine. He has certain menus he follows for each day of the week and any variation in these menus seems tragic to him. Ray also followed a strict television routine. He always watches the same programs every day. Ray would drive Charlie crazy by always repeating things, and insisting on only shopping at K-Mart.Along the way Charlie realizes that Raymond has a gift to memorize and count things with great accuracy. To Charlie’s downfall he ends up taking him to Las Vegas to count cards at the black jack tables at Caesars Palace casino. Although at first Charlie was concerned mostly about the money, he does establish a very strong bond with his brother and decides that he wants him to live with him in Los Angeles. The doctors on the other hand want Raymond to come back to the ins titution to live. It is unclear if the doctor’s motives are the money, or if they truly care for this patient.They have a custody hearing to determine where Raymond will live. The doctor at the institution meets up with Charlie to try to buy him off with money, but Charlie refuses, it is no longer an issue of money for him he just wants to be with his brother. The following day they go to the custody hearing. Even though it had appeared as though Raymond had made great improvements while in the care of his brother Raymond was unable to show the psychiatrist and doctor this because he became too nervous. It appears as though he was no different than he was when he left the institution.The decision was made that Raymond would return to the institution to live. Charlie puts Raymond on a train back to the institution with a promise that he will be coming to visit him in two weeks. The movie ends with Raymond counting down the days until Charlie’s visit. He is counting how many days, weeks, minutes, and even the exact seconds it will be until he will get to see his little brother again. Levinson, B. (1988) Autism is a challenging disorder. It causes massive amounts of stress on families. Autism disorder tends to causes a lot of stress on parents, siblings, and caregivers alike.Raising a child with autism usually causes more stress on a parent than mental retardation does due to the lack of interpersonal responsiveness associated with autism. Hoppes and Harris (1990). It is such a commonly known disorder for children to be diagnosed with that it scares new moms who are constantly looking for those red flags. If a child has a speech delay then parents often become concerned about a diagnosis of autism. It will lead parents to have their children tested when sometimes there is no reason for them to be concerned.Pediatrician’s offices usually have tons of useful information pertaining to identifying symptoms of autism disorder. Some symptoms includ e but are not limited to violent temper tantrums, they can appear to be deaf at times but not at others, or not respond when their own name is called. Most often autism is recognized by a delay in language skill or even a regression of skills such as social or communication. Autism affects each individual differently, some cases can be very mild and some can be more severe. Parker and Parker (2002) often parents become aware that something is not right as early as infancy.Sometimes it can take as long as three years of age before they notice something is wrong. It really depends on the severity. Patients with autism will or can show signs of communication problems, difficulty relating to people, difficulty to changes, and repetitive body movements ex: repetitive rocking. Children with autism usually do not like a lot of physical contact; they often do not like to even be held by their own parents. It is noted that adults with autism usually find looking people directly in the eye to be a problem, even people that they may know very well.Many people with autism never learn to speak. Parker and Parker (2002) For years Scientist research to find a cure, but for now no one even knows exactly what causes autism. It is estimated that somewhere between three to nine percent of the population of the United States has been diagnosed with this disorder. Boys seem to be more likely to get it than girls are by a ratio of 2. 5 to four. Studies seem to show that genetics play a big role as siblings seem to be two hundred times more likely to get this disorder than the general population.Piotrowski (2005). Yet over the years there have been many speculations, news stories and several documentaries on how vaccinations are the main cause of autism, as of yet there has been no scientific proof that this is true Parker and Parker (2002). There are also rumors of lead and mercury being a culprit although I was not able to find a documented source on this that I could cite. There are many people who feel that if they feed their children a certain diet plan that it will help their children’s symptoms, again these are not scientifically documented.The main fact here is that there is no cure for autism, but there are treatment options available. The earlier the treatment is started the better chance the patient and families will have at a possibly of living a near-normal life. Usually it is recommended to start treatment before age two. Examples of treatment options are Individualized Education Programs, Comprehensive Treatment Programs, Applied Behavior Analysis, Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support, and certain types of medications. Parker and Parker (2002) Autism is a challenging disorder. It causes massive amounts of stress on families. Through further education and treatment autism does not have to be a crippling disease, it can be managed with proper treatment and care.References Berkell Zager, D. (1999). Autism: Identification, Education, and Treatment. Mahwah,NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 17 Parker, J. & Parker, P. (2002). Official Parent’s Sourcebook on Autism. San Diego, CA Icon Health Publications, 10-25 Piotrowski, N. (2005). Psychology Basics. Hackensack, NJ Salem Press, 121-126 Johnson, M. (Producer), & Levinson, B. (Director). (1988). Rain Man [Motion picture]. United States: Metro Goldwyn Mayer Studios Inc.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Connection Between Prenatal Alcohol Exposure - 1848 Words

Alcohol is a teratogen, meaning that is it a substance capable of interfering with the development of an embryo or fetus, causing birth defects (Teratogen). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, or FASD, is a non-diagnostic umbrella term describing the varying range of effects that can occur as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. These may include physical, mental, behavioral, and learning disabilities, or a combination of these (Facts). A number of factors are involved in determining the outcome of the child, including the dose and pattern of drinking, the timing of exposure, genetic factors, the nutritional status of the mother, and the use of other toxic substances . Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, or FAS, lies on the extreme end of the†¦show more content†¦The scientific community didn’t recognize the potential harm of prenatal alcohol exposure until 1973, when Dr. David Smith and Dr. Kenneth Jones at the University of Washington in Seattle, published similar findings in t he medical journal Lancet. It was then that the term Fetal Alcohol Syndrome was coined (Stratton,1996). Since then, a spectrum of disorders connected to prenatal alcohol exposure has been recognised, with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome being the most severe. In 1996, the United States Institue of Medicine published Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment. The book created four diagnostic categories for disorders caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. They were: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (PFAS), Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) and Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ARND)(Stratton,1996). The differences between the disorders include the types of defects expressed and whether or not maternal alcohol consumption is confirmed. For example, ARND is characterized by intellectual disabilities and behavior and learning problems in the absence of physical defects. ARBD, on the other hand, lacks apparent neurobehavioral or brain disorders, but physical defects linked to prenatal alcohol exposure are present. (NOFAS) The differing definitions and conditions along the spectrum, unreliable and inconsistent self-reporting of alcohol

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Computer Games - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 2 Words: 542 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2018/12/19 Category Entertainment Essay Type Assignment Level High school Tags: Computer Essay Did you like this example? There are a number of research work conducted to investigate several effects that playing computer games brings about in schools. Some of these researches have clearly shown that there are positive results linked to the playing of computer games and the children studying in school while others have typically have a contradicting idea in response to computer games effect on school routines and the students in school. For instance, I am for the idea of supporting computer games and their impacts in schools. When I was a little kid for instance, I really loved playing video games on computers. I used to play different games on different computers and therefore, I used to make sure that I got in touch with different types of computers which were on different computers. That is how I used to spend most of my time at those early ages. Following my early life events, there are several life lesson that I practically learnt and generally any person who has been to this can attest to that. Practically, most of what I learnt from this were the aspects of the games that I used to play from different computers. I learnt that, at a certain level on micro wave, the music from the bar scene in star war comes in. However, my parents were not at all expecting me to be so used to computer games, I just used to be engaged in illegal gaming. This essay paper therefore serves to provide evidence on the fact that computer games can be effectively applied in or can used for classroom instruction. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Computer Games" essay for you Create order It is true according to me that these computer lessons are basically applied in the classroom procedures and best results can be attested to following their inclusion in the system. For instance, you would only need to find an interesting computer game out there. My best example for this is the Minecraft which basically stands at over 10 million users. It is and has been described as one of the most educational games available in the world of computing today. It can basically be applied in lesson plan and classroom teaching. Like Minecraft, it is basically used in the teaching of mathematics. Apart from the simple multiplication that it can be used to do, Minecraft can also be used to handle geography, science and in developing the best models in the community. Just like Keith Devlin argues, computer games are mostly and best used in teaching maths. It is quite evident from the results that we have had before that computer games contain a lot of educational materials that should be used for knowledge development. On another light note, the computer games are mostly designed in a way to ensure that children thinking has been enhanced. The children are normally keen on the game they are most likely to be playing and still in the same scenario, they learn of the lesson or the program that is normally intended for them in particular. The best example in this is the fact that, you cannot just use any example in the classroom and expect students to pay attention. What basically happens is that, the instructor comes up with a new computer game to attract the attention of the children.

Friday, December 20, 2019

Evidence Based Practice An Important Aspect Of Many...

Evidence-based practice is an important aspect of many professions, especially ones based in science. Psychologists base their work on the science of psychology and follow a code of ethics, part of that code is competence. The practices used by psychologists need to be based on scientific research that has been peer reviewed. This helps the psychologists avoid making mistakes by using practices that could be harmful or that do not work. Identifying and assessing evidence-based practices before you implement them is very important (USDHHS). It is easy to find sources on the internet, but not all of those sources are valid. First, you should come up with relevant questions that you want the research to answer and outcomes you want to reach. Second, you want to make sure the people conducting the research are credible and that their scientific methods adhere to the standards of your profession. Third, the research must be relevant to your needs and based on theories that the c ommunity accepts. In my career as I daycare provider and preschool teacher I will need to use evidence-based practices for literacy, screening, and inclusion of special needs children. Literacy is one of the most important and sometimes difficult part of education. Many children have no interest in reading and others struggle. Both of these groups of children are often pushed aside so teachers can focus on the children that do not give them a hard time. These children need more attention,Show MoreRelatedThe Status of EBP in the PA Profession1419 Words   |  6 Pagesthe PA Profession Introduction The entire health industry is highly commercial and the face of the industry has changed and so has the requirements. Value creation today is mostly done by pharmacy benefit managers, doctors, nurses and the Physician Assistant--PA. These and health maintenance organizations are the new healthcare players. 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There has been ongoing controversy on whether nursing is in fact a profession or an occupation, even among nursing organizations. Lucie Kelly has spent most of her career exploring the dimensions of professional nursing. She is a registered nurse (RN) herself and also is a Doctor

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill free essay sample

The cleaning process was said to have been very difficult in many ways. The workers that were in charge of the clean up ran across several problems that ranged from the frequent changes of the tide; covering the rocks with more oil to the long term damages of the fish marine and wildlife. Ethical Issue / Conflict In this case you will find that there was a great deal of ethical concerns that ranged from the companies late response to the oil spill to the way that they choose to deal with the compensation that was agreed upon between the company and the victims involved .Even though Exxon argued that they handled the matter responsibly by acting in a timely manner and paying each claim in the amount of nearly $3 billion dollars, there were a whole host of scientist and environmentalist who believed that the company should have paid even more. Affected Parties There were a great deal of human communities as well as wildlife and marine that were affected by this oil spill. We will write a custom essay sample on Exxon Valdez Oil Spill or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Several years after the oil disaster there have been reports that most of these communities have not fully recovered from the damage.With this kind of disaster, affecting such a mass environment , the economy and other industry related jobs collapsed into a failing ecological ruin. Consequences and Reforms Shortly after the oil spill, Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. This law basically stated that there was to be no further drilling and that all vessels would be prohibited from operating in the Prince William Sound Region. Exxon argued in a legal matter in order to convince the Federal Government that it was in-fact safe for ships to enter the Alaskan waters.Exxon felt as if the decision was just targeting there company and never would have been in effect if it wasn’t for their unfortunately incident. Exxon continued to dispute the governments decision by claiming that the bill was unfair. In 2002, the Court of Appeals ruled against them which prevented 18 ships from ever making it to the Prince William Sound Region. Economic and personal impact In 1991, The Alaskan Native Corporation filed for bankruptcy.There were several studies done that determined that the spill caused a lot of short term as well as long term damage economically. There was a loss of recreational sports, fisheries, stocks of salmon, herring and reduced tourism . Several residents as well as the former mayor were said to have committed suicide after the spill. Conclusion If there is one thing that we can all learn from this disastor is that when any company engages in such unethical acts , you can almost always expect consequences to follow . This shows that any company currently involved in any kind of unethical enviromental practices should be prepared to face a lot of public distrust as well as costly litigation. Today we are still learning lessons from the Exxon Valdez spill because of the recent BP environmental disaster in the Gulf . Various methods, techniques and technology are now being designed to prevent these oil spills from ever happening again . References Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council . Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Plan .

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Remote Access Method Evaluation free essay sample

Many companies inform their IT’s as to who will receive access to the network and what type of equipment they will be using. It could be from an older vpn that needs a software package to run on a trustworthy network, which would be safe to run from a home PC or smartphone. No network is ever 100% secure. Companies should access their needs and risks, and then write their acceptable use policies. Some companies may find it easier to rent a secure cloud app rather than installing in-house software, but this may not meet all of the company’s needs. Companies using remote access VPN’s will see a return on money spent, so this method is cost effective. Other benefits of using this method are standardized software, â€Å"Out of the Box†, modular software architecture and matched VPN components. If the companies have a high employee turnovers it would not be cost effective to use this method. We will write a custom essay sample on Remote Access Method Evaluation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This service provides an end to end encrypted tunnel. The â€Å"Out of the Box† can be upgraded and the VPN has wide scalability, so that companies can be more mobile. If anything else is open on computer and transporting data it would be easy for someone to view those files that are open. Hypertext transport protocol over SSL uses certificates and public key to encrypt the transportation of data. HTTPS sends data in plain text, after connected with a SSL connection all data is encrypted from that point. Even though it may cost more to use HTTPS, this is the safer way to go.